Procrastination is part of the daily experience of many people, especially students, who may procrastinate as much as 70% of the time (Knaus, 1973). This study sought to establish differences in affective and academic outcomes depending on the type of procrastinatory activity one engages in. More specifically, we looked at whether social vs. nonsocial forms of procrastination (e.g., going out with friends vs. watching TV alone) were associated with different consequences. The social distinction was further divided into invited (i.e., responding to others' invitations) vs. sought-out (i.e., initiating a social activity) domains. Participants completed both quantitative and qualitative measures. The sought-out social condition had more positive outcomes than the invited social and non-social conditions.
Palmer, Allison, "Procrastinating with Friends: Differences and Similarities in Affective and Academic Experiences" (2008). Psychology Honors Projects. 13.
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