This paper argues that the Qur’an succeeds in presenting a basic structure of morality, centered upon faith and charity, but it ultimately lacks the necessary specificity to form a clear picture of righteous conduct to which modern readers can reasonably aspire. More significantly, the dualism of action, belief, and consequence that gives the text its force and certainty does not seem compatible with the recognition that circumstance plays a role in determining what is good and what is bad action.
"The Problem of Ambiguity and Moral Luck for Qur’anic Absolutism,"
Macalester Islam Journal: Vol. 1
, Article 5.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.macalester.edu/islam/vol1/iss2/5