Scholarship has tended to understand the European Union as either intergovernmental or supranational within the context of the Westphalian state system. This study begins with the assertion that the EU is a unique political entity that requires more flexible conceptions of world politics. I argue that the EU is structurally different in the economic and security domains of foreign policy. It is supranational in economic relations and intergovernmental in security issues. This is demonstrated through examining the EU policies on trade, aid, and intervention. I also highlight the weaknesses – democratic deficit, weak public opinion and lack of common identity – that affect the Union’s international identity. Thus, the combination of structural achievements and liabilities has made the Union a complex political creature with dual identity.
Jelev, Momchil A., "Transcending Westphalia: The Two Faces of European Foreign Policy" (2008). Honors Projects. Paper 11.
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